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Showing posts from 2010

Hiss- The Kiss of Serpent

Jennifer Lynch’s Hiss could have become another Bollywood blockbuster directed by Hollywood director but for the music. The snake story is one of the popular themes of Indian Cinema from ancient times. Lot of mythological believes have been associated with the theme and numerous stories have been written. Of course the 1970’s Nagin and 1980’s Nagina proved to be mega hits and rocked the theatres. The success behind these movies was of course the dramatic story which was new for the Cine goers, the lyrics and finally the music which is the heart of Indian Cinema.

In all the Serpent stories the most common noticeable facts are –

Revenge: If the male is killed the female mate will anyhow take the revenge, of course the female traces the audit trail from the recording in the male serpent’s eyes.

Ichadhari: The serpent may be Ichadhari literally meaning can change its physical appearance to any form depending on its will.

Mani: Popularly known as Nag Mani is considered to be one of the p…

Deepavali – The festival of lights

Man has celebrated his joy and expressed his grief in one or the other way throughout the history. Indeed the ability to communicate his feelings in verbal form and articulate his gestures to convey the message to his fellow beings distinguishes the mankind from being an animal in spite of the phylogenetic lineage.

Life has changed with the ever changing time but especially Man’s life has changed immensely beyond imagination. Though the other species still dwell in their habitat and lead their life as they used to be millions of years ago during the early phase of evolution, man’s life is not the same anymore. He went through the Stone Age from being a caveman and now enjoys the privilege of modern sovereign.

During the course of evolution man learned many things but the most important among all those was language- the way to express inner feelings and communicate with each other. Language indeed led to information gathering (past was history and future was mystery) and thus started t…

Satu Malaysia

Malaysia is a unique country with beautiful landscapes and bountiful people. Nature has endowed this country with scenic beauty. One can notice a lot of greenery everywhere. The beaches are well maintained and attract tourists from around the globe. Tourism is one of the major sources of revenue to the country’s economy apart from the rich natural resources like palm and rubber plantations. To attract the tourists the government has left no stone unturned. Malaysia has a very good transport facility. It is connected by air and sea to all major parts of the world. On the domestic front the mono-rail (LRT), luxury buses and even domestic flights suffice the need of tourists to travel across the major tourist destinations. The cuisine is delicious. You can always get Chinese, Indian and Malay food of hygienic and good quality.

Moreover the major reason behind the success of Malaysian tourism industry is its people. The people of Malaysia are very friendly with great hospitality. Malaysi…

Marriage Love

Love is God, something that cannot be defined in a sentence or two. For some it may be belongingness, for some possessiveness, for some patriotism, for some convenience, for some sense of well being, for some absence of sorrows or happiness, the concept may vary from individual to individual depending upon his own expectations and thinking about love. During our college days the much debated topic was love marriage is better or marriage love i.e., arranged marriage. There used to be divided opinions on the topic.

The concept of marriage also varies from place to place, culture to culture and thus has no uniformity when it comes to choosing the life partner. Nevertheless the term marriage is universal and the society by and large accepts it as a legal, ethical, social, religious bonding between the life partners and once married they are called husband and wife. Marriage may be a socio-religious agreement for some, Parinaya sutra for some and kalyanam for some. The customs, traditions,…

Chandni Chouk to China Town

With lot of apprehensions and presumptions in mind finally we arrived in China for a visit. As it was my first visit to China people could notice the anxiety due to curiosity on face. Sitting at George Town International Airport I was just trying to make up myself comfortable.

After completing the formalities of boarding pass, immigration and security checks we could finally board the Boeing 737 Southern China Airlines at morning 8.00 a.m. The hospitality of crew members was good. The air hostess, an epitome of oriental beauty would greet all the passengers in Chinese-"Nihao".

The three hours and forty minutes of the journey from George Town International Airport to Guangzhou Airport was like an induction for us. As usual my curiosity coefficient was 100% and was observing all the things keenly right from the dressing, greeting and the eating habits of the people of China.

We could spend only a short time in Guangzhou as connecting flight to Shanghai was on time.Started to …

Dissolution - Theory and concepts

Theory of Dissolution

 Dissolution is the process by which a solid enters into solution.
 In 1897 Noyes and Whitney came up with: “The rate of solution of
solid substances in their own solution.”
 dc / dt = K (Cs-Ct)
 According to their research, rate of dissolution of solid substances is determined by rate of diffusion of a very thin layer of saturated solution that forms instantaneously around the solid particle. They developed the mathematical relationship that correlates the dissolution rate to the solubility gradient of the solid.

Diffusion layer model / film theory

 In 1904, Nerst and Brunner applied Fick’s law of diffusion to the
Noyes-Whitney equation. (Diffusion layer model / film theory)
 dc / dt = K D.S / v.h (Cs-Ct)

Cube root law of dissolution

 In 1931, Hixson and Crowell came up with Cube root law of
 W01/3-W1/3 = Kt

Scheme of dissolution

Later Wagner followed by Carstensen gave the scheme of dissolution.
 Initial mechanical lag
 Wetting of the …

Paras- The Money Plant

11th March, 1998, Chandrapur, Maharashtra, India.

The Police involved in a massive manhunt is chasing a notorious criminal Prabhakar who was wanted for many crimes like- murders, cheating, smugling etc.Prabhkar enters the forest of Junona and as usual elopes mysteriously into the forest. The police takes help of special task force and even the aerial search by helicopter could not locate Prabhakar. People just spread the gossip that the mystery man has dissappeared once again, with the police machinery left clueless.

19 th March,1998, Nagpur

The Chief Minister holds meeting with the Police chief , Collector and MLA of Chandrapur. He is angry as there is public outcry over the latest killing of Seth Chunalal, the owner of largest Jewellary outlets in Vidharba by Prabhakar. The chief Minister gives 1 month time to the Police chief and says he wants Prabhakar, dead or alive, no compromise.

18th April, 1998, Chandrapur

The whole of Junona Jungle is covered by the massive manhunt operatio…

Sare Jahase Achcha ......Boleto "N" Idiots

21 st May 2040, Delhi (the Capital of India)

The Prime Minister along with Dr.Abhiram, Dr.Aditya and Dr.Chandrashekaran hoist a press conference along with the Chief National Advisor. The Prime Minister congratulates the team of Scientists who successfully heralded the operation Surya Shakti Project.

The Prime Minister declares to the nation that this could only be considered next to the discovery of wheel and fire and which would revolutionize the world in general and India in particular.

"People of India" I am proud to state that today with the accomplishment of this Project India has become self reliant in the generation of power and this could begin the era of our victory. The Paradigm has thoughtfully shifted, yes the sun rises in the East, because Satyamev jayate.

Our scientists have discovered the secret of Sun's enormous energy. The Sun himself is evident, we have always worshipped him as a source of inspiration, enlightenment and wisdom. He is the one who alwa…

UV-Visible Spectroscopy


Spectroscopy is an analytical technique based on the interaction of the electromagnetic radiation with matter.

Electromagnetic radiation (E.M.R.) – Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy which is dual in nature.
 Wave nature - frequency, wave-length and velocity.
 Particulate nature – individual photon, discrete packet of energy.

The energy carried by an E.M.R. or a photon is directly proportional to the frequency, i.e.
E = hv =hc/ = hv' c
Where h is Planck’s constant h=6.626x10-34J×s

Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with Matter

The electromagnetic radiation interacts with matter because electrons and molecules in materials are polarizable.

Different types of interactions:

• Absorption
• Reflection
• Transmission
• Scattering
• Refraction

Each interaction can disclose certain properties of the matter – When applying E.M.R. of different frequency different type information can be obtained.

The energy, E, associated with the molecular bands:

E = Eele…

Analytical Instrument Qualification

Analytical Instrument Qualification

AIQ is the documented evidence to prove that an instrument performs suitably for its intended purpose. The USP 32 NF 27 has come up with recent chapter on AIQ is a scientific approach and gives guidance of the following:
 The approach of AIQ
 The criteria to categorize the instrument for assessment of qualification needs
 The extent of qualification depending upon the category of instrument
 The documentation required.
AIQ, Analytical method validation, system suitability tests, and quality control check samples are described as the four critical components involved in the generation of reliable and consistent data.
It is the responsibility of user to prepare a User Requirement Specification (URS) which would suffice all the needs as per the requirement for analysis. The manufacturer shall be responsible for preparing the design specification.
Categorization of the instruments:
As per the USP all the laboratory instruments can be categorize…

Health and hygiene

Health and Hygiene
Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. -WHO
Human body is made up of many systems like-
 Nervous system
 Circulatory system
 Excretory system
 Digestive system
 Respiratory system
 Reproductive system
Each system is made up of organs like-
 Brain & Spinal cord
 Heart
 Kidneys
 Stomach & Intestines
 Lungs
 Liver
Each organ is made up of many tissues like-
 Connective tissue
 Muscle tissue
 Nervous tissue
 Epithelial tissue
Each tissue is made up of many cells which are the basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms. It is the smallest unit of life, often called the building block of life.
Thus human body is the highly organized cellular system which is considered to be healthy unless there is some problem manifested by the symptoms of the disease in either of the cells, tissues, organs or systems.
Disease which literally means not at ease is …

Cost Of Poor Quality (COPQ)

Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) in Quality Control
Every product has a cost of production, which may include:
 Raw material cost
 Formulation or process cost
 Man power cost
 Utility cost
 Packaging cost
 Transportation cost
 Marketing cost
Thus all the money spent to procure, produce and finally deliver the product in totality make up the product cost. Apart from all the routine costs one more cost which adds to the product cost is Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ). COPQ as a concept was first published by James Harrington in his 1987 book “Poor Quality Costs”.
In Pharmaceutical industry the cost of product like any other product depends on all the above listed parameters. But as drugs / medicines are intended to be administered mostly to the patients for curing the disease except sometimes when they are given for prophylactic purpose to healthy individuals, the quality of these drugs has to be assured not only to produce the intended effect but also to avoid any unwanted effects like-to…