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Showing posts from January, 2010

Sare Jahase Achcha ......Boleto "N" Idiots

21 st May 2040, Delhi (the Capital of India)

The Prime Minister along with Dr.Abhiram, Dr.Aditya and Dr.Chandrashekaran hoist a press conference along with the Chief National Advisor. The Prime Minister congratulates the team of Scientists who successfully heralded the operation Surya Shakti Project.

The Prime Minister declares to the nation that this could only be considered next to the discovery of wheel and fire and which would revolutionize the world in general and India in particular.

"People of India" I am proud to state that today with the accomplishment of this Project India has become self reliant in the generation of power and this could begin the era of our victory. The Paradigm has thoughtfully shifted, yes the sun rises in the East, because Satyamev jayate.

Our scientists have discovered the secret of Sun's enormous energy. The Sun himself is evident, we have always worshipped him as a source of inspiration, enlightenment and wisdom. He is the one who alwa…

UV-Visible Spectroscopy


Spectroscopy is an analytical technique based on the interaction of the electromagnetic radiation with matter.

Electromagnetic radiation (E.M.R.) – Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy which is dual in nature.
 Wave nature - frequency, wave-length and velocity.
 Particulate nature – individual photon, discrete packet of energy.

The energy carried by an E.M.R. or a photon is directly proportional to the frequency, i.e.
E = hv =hc/ = hv' c
Where h is Planck’s constant h=6.626x10-34J×s

Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with Matter

The electromagnetic radiation interacts with matter because electrons and molecules in materials are polarizable.

Different types of interactions:

• Absorption
• Reflection
• Transmission
• Scattering
• Refraction

Each interaction can disclose certain properties of the matter – When applying E.M.R. of different frequency different type information can be obtained.

The energy, E, associated with the molecular bands:

E = Eele…

Analytical Instrument Qualification

Analytical Instrument Qualification

AIQ is the documented evidence to prove that an instrument performs suitably for its intended purpose. The USP 32 NF 27 has come up with recent chapter on AIQ is a scientific approach and gives guidance of the following:
 The approach of AIQ
 The criteria to categorize the instrument for assessment of qualification needs
 The extent of qualification depending upon the category of instrument
 The documentation required.
AIQ, Analytical method validation, system suitability tests, and quality control check samples are described as the four critical components involved in the generation of reliable and consistent data.
It is the responsibility of user to prepare a User Requirement Specification (URS) which would suffice all the needs as per the requirement for analysis. The manufacturer shall be responsible for preparing the design specification.
Categorization of the instruments:
As per the USP all the laboratory instruments can be categorize…

Health and hygiene

Health and Hygiene
Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. -WHO
Human body is made up of many systems like-
 Nervous system
 Circulatory system
 Excretory system
 Digestive system
 Respiratory system
 Reproductive system
Each system is made up of organs like-
 Brain & Spinal cord
 Heart
 Kidneys
 Stomach & Intestines
 Lungs
 Liver
Each organ is made up of many tissues like-
 Connective tissue
 Muscle tissue
 Nervous tissue
 Epithelial tissue
Each tissue is made up of many cells which are the basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms. It is the smallest unit of life, often called the building block of life.
Thus human body is the highly organized cellular system which is considered to be healthy unless there is some problem manifested by the symptoms of the disease in either of the cells, tissues, organs or systems.
Disease which literally means not at ease is …

Cost Of Poor Quality (COPQ)

Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) in Quality Control
Every product has a cost of production, which may include:
 Raw material cost
 Formulation or process cost
 Man power cost
 Utility cost
 Packaging cost
 Transportation cost
 Marketing cost
Thus all the money spent to procure, produce and finally deliver the product in totality make up the product cost. Apart from all the routine costs one more cost which adds to the product cost is Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ). COPQ as a concept was first published by James Harrington in his 1987 book “Poor Quality Costs”.
In Pharmaceutical industry the cost of product like any other product depends on all the above listed parameters. But as drugs / medicines are intended to be administered mostly to the patients for curing the disease except sometimes when they are given for prophylactic purpose to healthy individuals, the quality of these drugs has to be assured not only to produce the intended effect but also to avoid any unwanted effects like-to…